Throughout the last decade, augmented reality (AR) head-mounted displays (HMDs) have gradually become a substantial part of modern life, with increasing applications ranging from gaming and driver assistance to medical training. Owing to the tremendous progress in miniaturized displays, cameras, and sensors, HMDs are now used for the diagnosis, treatment, and follow-up of several eye diseases. In this review, we discuss the current state-of-the-art as well as potential uses of AR in ophthalmology. This review includes the following topics: (i) underlying optical technologies, displays and trackers, holography, and adaptive optics; (ii) accommodation, 3D vision, and related problems such as presbyopia, amblyopia, strabismus, and refractive errors; (iii) AR technologies in lens and corneal disorders, in particular cataract and keratoconus; (iv) AR technologies in retinal disorders including age-related macular degeneration (AMD), glaucoma, color blindness, and vision simulators developed for other types of low-vision patients.
© 2020 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement